Please complete the following for your own review. Be sure to write the correct number that best fits the question and show your work as needed.
The time period between when a disease first occurs, and it is clinically detected is called
which of the following?
1. disease occurrence time
2. time to event
3. induction time
4. latency period
An epidemiologist is studying skin cancer and knows that exposure to the sun is a component cause of the disease. She also knows that the induction time of sun exposure for most people is 20 years. What will occur at the end of 20 years for most people exposed to the sun?
1. people will be diagnosed with skin cancer
2. people will develop the first skin cancer cell
3. people will begin developing symptoms of skin cancer
4. People will die of skin cancer
An epidemiologist is interested in understanding the relationship between sugar intake and hyperactivity among children. He enrolls elementary school children into the study that have not been diagnosed with hyperactivity, then randomly assigned the children to the treatment or control group. For the treatment group, children receive water and a granola bar with their school lunch. He follows the children for one semester then measures the children for symptoms of hyperactivity. What type of study is this?
1. cohort study
2. retrospective cohort study
3. prospective cohort study
4. experimental study
For the study described in the above question, what is the appropriate measure of effect?
1. incidence proportion
2. Incidence rate
3. Relative risk
4. hazard ratio
An epidemiologist hypothesizes that children
who drink dairy milk are more likely to have
ear infections. The epidemiologist has read
the medical literature and understands that
the following can also play a role in causing
ear infections for children: (a) defects of the
Eustachian tube; (b) having the flu; and (c)
exposure to second hand smoke. Which of
the following would NOT be a component in
the causal pie?
1. ear infection
2. exposure to second hand smoke
3. having the flu
4. drinking dairy milk
For a component cause that acts last, the
induction time is which of the following?
1. dependent on the disease
4. dependent on the timing of the other
Which of the following relative risks (RR)
indicate there is no difference in the
incidence of disease between the exposed
and unexposed groups?
Which of the following is true about
1. it is a science about human disease occurrence
2. it is a science that produces empirical evidence
3. all answers are correct
4. it is an observational science
An epidemiologist is investigating the
following research question: Does increased
alcohol intake increase the risk for liver
cancer? The epidemiologist reported the
following in a published manuscript about the
relationship between alcohol intake and liver
cancer: lowest level of alcohol intake RR=1.0
(ref.); moderate level of alcohol intake
R=1.5; highest level of alcohol intake
RR=2.0. This is an example of which
Bradford Hill’s criteria for causation?
1. experimental evidence
2. biological gradient/dose response
In which section of a research journal article
should you expect to find a description of
how the exposure was measured?
The next 1-4 Questions all relate to the
following study. The 2X2 table below
represents the prospective follow-up of 500
premenopausal women for the occurrence of
breast cancer among smokers and
nonsmokers. Women without breast cancer
were enrolled in the study and followed in a
prospective cohort for 12 years. Use the
information from the 2X2 table to answer this
question. What is the risk of breast cancer
among the smokers? Please provide your
final answer followed by your calculation
in the space provided (2 pts.)
Breast cancer No breast cancer
Smoker 79 71
Non-Smoker 99 251
2- Using the information from the 2X2 table in
question 1, how many people smoked?
Show work :
3- Using the information from the 2X2 table in
question 21, what is the relative risk of
smoking and breast cancer? Remember to
round risk to 4 decimal points and the relative
risk to two decimal points.
4- What is one assumption about the relative
risk you calculated in question 3 based on
the follow-up of the cohort?
5- Please refer to FIGURE
In order to answer 5-10. What is the incident
rate of lung cancer for the people exposed to
air pollution? Place your final
answer followed by your calculation in all
questions requiring a calculation.
6- Referring to the Figure , what is the
incident rate of lung cancer for people not
exposed to air pollution?
7- Referring to the Figure , what is the
total person time followed for all of the
8- Convert the incident rate that you calculated
in question 5 for the exposed group to
1,000 person years.
9-What is the incident rate ratio of lung cancer
comparing people exposed to air pollution to
people not exposed to air pollution.
10-State in one sentence the meaning of the
incident rate ratio that your calculated for
11- Questions 11-12 pertain to the following
study. An epidemiologist has a hypothesis
that meditation will decrease stress among
college students. He enrolls 100 students
that scored high on his stress screening test
and randomly assigns half of the students to
his experimental group to receive lessons on
meditation techniques. The other half of the
students did not receive any intervention and
are called the placebo group. After 6 weeks,
half of the students that received meditation
lessons decreased stress. Ten percent of the
students that did not receive an intervention
decreased stress over the same follow-up
period. Calculate the measure of effect for
12- Some students receiving meditation lessons
shared what they learned with friend in the
placebo group. The epidemiologist
performed an intent to treat analysis. What
does this mean